Robert Putnam. (2015). Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis. (especially pp. 31-45 for an overview of inequality in America today, Chapter 5 for a discussion of what is happening to youth opportunity in communities and pp. 226-261 about what is to be done).

Neighborhood inequality

Turner, Margery. (2014). “Tackling Persistent Poverty in Distressed Urban Neighborhoods: History, Principles, and Strategies for Philanthropic Investment.” LINK 

Sharkey, Patrick. (2015). “Neighborhoods, Cities and Economic Mobility.” LINK

Turner, Margery. (2015). “Neighborhoods Matter for Economic Mobility.” LINK

Wilson, William Julius. (2009). “More Than Just Race: Being Black and Poor in the Inner City.” Poverty and Race Research Action Council Vol. 18(3), pp.1-2,9-11. LINK

Community institutions and culture/mentoring

Butler, Stuart. (2014). “Cultures Build Character.” LINK

Sinha, J. W., Cnaan, R. A., & Gelles, R. J. (2006). Adolescent risk behaviors and religion: Findings from a national study. Journal of Adolescence, 30(2), 231-249. LINK

Cavell, Timothy, Dubois, David et al. (2009). “Policy Brief: Strengthening Mentoring Opportunities for At-Risk Youth”.

Reim, Mary Claire. (2014). “Rebuilding Social Capital through Community Institutions.” Heritage Foundation. LINK

MENTOR/Civic Enterprises. (2014). “The Mentoring Effect: Young People’s Perspectives on the Outcomes and Availability of Mentoring. [Executive Summary (pp. 2-12) and “Paths Forward” (pp. 33-37) only] LINK

Erickson, McDonald and Elder. (2009). “Informal Mentors and Education: Complementary or Compensatory Resources”. LINK

Schools as Community Institutions

Gabrieli, John. (2014). “The Promise of the Harlem Children’s Zone”. Harvard Political Review. LINK

Canada, Geoffrey. (2010). “The Harlem Children’s Zone response to the Brookings Institute’s report: ‘The Harlem Children’s Zone, Promise Neighborhoods, and the Broader, Bolder Approach to Education’.

Noguera, Pedro. (2011). “Still Leaving Children Behind.”

Noguera, Pedro and Wells, Lauren. (2008). “The Politics of School Reform: A Broader and Bolder Approach for Newark.” LINK (Huffington Post)

Dryfoos, Joy. (2000). “Evaluation of Community Schools: Findings to Date” (2000). pp 1-7 only. LINK

Rural communities

Duncan, Cynthia “Mil”. (2014, 2nd edition). Worlds Apart: Poverty and Politics in Rural America.